Glossary on sustainability
The stark facts are that
the Earth holds a finite stock of fossil fuels (which includes nuclear power)
2. once these stocks are finished, we will entirely depend on the Earth's daily energy budget of solar power and possibly some geothermic energy.
Introduction | Opinion | Links
Peak Oil - 2010 IEA report
energy page list
energy units and conversions
Energy is the capacity to work.
We actually mean "Potential energy", or "stored energy", which is the ability of a system to do work due to its position or internal structure. The most common stored energy forms are chemical energy in wood, coal, natural gas and crude oil and its derivates. Gravitational potential energy is a stored energy determined by an object's position in a gravitational field, such as water in hydro dams. Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in a spring, after it has been compressed.
Energy units are BTU (British Thermal Units), kWh (Kilowatthours), kcal (Kilocalories), kJ (Kilojoules), etc.. The SI basic units for potential energy are the joule (J) or newton-meter (N*m). (OECD units )
Some statistical data (source: OECD Factbook (2005) Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics
World energy supply (2002) Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent):
The world’s total primary energy supply: 10230 Mtoe = 118975 Million MWh. (1971: 5470 Mtoe).
The share of oil was 34.9% = 3571 Mtoe (1971: 42.8%)
The share of coal was 23.5% = 2204 Mtoe (1971: 26.4%)
The share of combustible renewables and waste – mainly wood and charcoal: 11% = 1125 Mtoe (1971: 11%)
The share of natural gas: 21.2% = 2169 Mtoe (1971: 16.4%)
The share of nuclear: 6.8% = 696 Mtoe (1971: 0.5%)
The increase was 87% over 31 years, which is 2% a year. By comparison, world population yearly growth was 1.6% and Gross Domestic Product was 2.9% over the same period.
[Compare World energy resources and consumption]
An adult person uses about 2500 kcal a day, of which 1600 kcal are used for the functioning of the human body. Approx. 900 kcal are available for work. This is about 1 kWh - the amount of energy (electricity) that a 60 Watt light bulb consumes in 15 hours.
Energy forms that we can use are solar energy, the energy available in people and animals, hydraulic and wind energy, geothermal, as well as the energy that is stored in fossil fuels such as oil, gas, coal and uranium.
(Energy conversions on-line )
|| ||Einheit 2
|1000 m3||Erdgas||=||8,816 MWh||8816 kWh
|1 tonne ||SKE = Steinkohleneinheit||=||8,14 MWh||8140 kWh
|1 tonne ||RÖE = Rohöleinheit||=||11,63 MWh||11630 kWh
|1000||MJ = Megajoule (=106 Joule)||=||0,278 MWh||278 kWh
|1||GJ = Gigajoule (=109 Joule)||=||0,278 MWh||278 kWh
|1||TJ = Terajoule (=1012 Joule)||=||278 MWh||278 000 kWh
|1 ||PJ = Petajoule (=1015 Joule)||=||278 000 MWh||278 Mio. kWh
|1|| EJ = Exajoule (=1018 Joule)||=||278 Mio. MWh||278 Mia. kWh
|1 Mio. ||BTU = British Thermal Unit||=||0,2931 MWh||293,1 kWh
|Unit 1||=||Unit 2||Comparative value|
|1 J ||=||1 Ws|| |
|1000 kJ||=||238.8 kcal || |
|1000 kJ||=||0.278 kWh|| |
|1 kWh||=||3.412 BTU|| |
|1000 kJ||=||0.278 kWh|| |
|1 kWh||=||3597 kJ|| |
|1 barrel of crude oil||=||1714 kWh||the daily work performance of 1714 average adults = 13712 person-hours|
|1 barrel of crude oil||=||50 US$ (JAN2009)||109,696 US$ adult work at 8$/h|
|1 kcal||=||4.1868 kJ|| |
|1 kcal||=||1.1628 Wh|| |
|2500 kcal||=||2.907 kWh||the daily energy need of an average adult person.|
|1 kWh||=||860 kcal||the daily work performance of an average adult person.|
|1 m3 Erdgas||=||8.816 kWh|| |
|1 ton of coal equivalent TCE||=||8140 kWh|| |
|1 ton of oil equivalent TOE||=||11630 kWh|| |
|1 ton of oil equivalent TOE||=||1.428 TCE|| |
|1000 BTU||=||0.2931 kWh|| |
|1 QUAD||=||1x1015 BTUs = 1 quadrillion||The energy contained in eight billion gallons of gasoline, a year's supply for ten million automobiles.|
|1 QUAD||=||293074646 MWh|| |
|1 QUAD||=||1.055 × 1018 joules || |
|1 QUAD||=||1.055 exajoules or EJ|| |
|1 barrel||=||42 gallons|| |
|1 barrel of crude oil||=|| 5,848,000 BTU|| |
Vermögen (Leistung) ist die Energiemenge, die pro Zeiteinheit erbracht werden kann.
Einheiten sind PS (Pferdestärke), kW (Kilowatt).
Wasserstoff - hydrogène
Weltenergiebedarf - Prognosen bis 2030
Kunstschnee auf dem Bundesplatz in Bern
Die Energiespirale - Energiedefizite in der Landwirtschaft
Sorry, leider beginnt schon die zweite Halbzeit - Interview mit Colin Campbell über des Ende vom Öl
Opinion | [Introduction] | Links
The "energy problem" is predominently seen as an impending shortage of energy to meet present and future energy consumption levels and the climate change because of burning fossil fuels.
Many discussions focus on alternative (sustainable) energy solutions, such as Hydrogen, Biomass, Solar panels, etc. For various reasons we think that none of these alternative energies will produce a fraction of the energy we now use.
On the other hand it can be argued that it is precisely the abundance of fossil energy in the first place that allowed our human population and its per capita consumption to overshoot to the present disastrous levels.
Hence our priority should not be trying to maintain present energy use levels. We should reduce energy use by restructuring our societal organisation and banning wasteful activities, along with a host of other measures towards sustainability.
Peak Oil - The Long Emergency, Post-Oil Man (Videos and audios)
Can nuclear power reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
Humans as a passing species - a scenario after Peak Oil
Tinted Glass Curtain Wall and its Implications on the Occupants' Health - Case Study of a Tight Office Building in Algiers
..... your contribution or feedback
Verknüpfungen | [Einführung] | [Opinion]
Energy and Environment in the 21. century - a seminar series by Michael Dittmar
The energy Return On Investment spiral in agriculture and fisheries
Energy Glossary - and more...
Peak Oil links
"Peak Oil" Information (New Zealand Greens)
Bundesamt für Energie (Schweiz)
Risikofaktor Mensch (Atomkraft)
Eine Geschichte der Elektrizität | Electricity - électricité | enseignement adapté acceuil
Energy @ ecoglobe.org
www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/2006_08_08_alert.php - alert against biodiesel
.....suggest a link
The [OECD] table refers to total primary energy supply (TPES). TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international marine bunkers plus or minus stock changes. The IEA energy balance methodology is based on the calorific content of the energy commodities and a common unit of account. The unit of account adopted is the tonne of oil equivalent (toe) which is defined as 107 kilocalories (41.868 gigajoules). This quantity of energy is, within a few per cent, equal to the net heat content of 1 tonne of crude oil. The difference between the "net" and the "gross" calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For coal and oil, net calorific value is about 5% less than gross, for most forms of natural and manufactured gas the difference is 9-10%, while for electricity there is no difference as the concept has no meaning in this case. The IEA balances are calculated using the physical energy content method to calculate the primary energy equivalent.
(Source: http://titania.sourceoecd.org/vl= 11528688/cl=14/nw=1/rpsv/factbook2009/05/01/01/index.htm)